BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY OF MABOLO RIVER IN ANKPA KOGI STATE NIGERIA
Urban River, streams and wetlands are susceptible to pollution and so, river Mabolo faces a similar problem. This river is a source of water for domestic industrial and agricultural activities for Ankpa municipality and its environs but due to poor waste management proliferation of motor gurage, markets, hotel, hospital, school and industrial setups it waters quality could have got compromise. The proposed study at four sections (including entry and exits from the municipality) seeks for access the water quality of this section of the river using biological agents like feacal coliforms and e coli and aquatic macro invertebrates as indicators for water quality the changes of the mentioned biological variables will be accessed considering a sessional variations the information generated from this study will be used by relevant stakeholders in water management to design aim at reducing water pollution and make it safe for human and aminals consumption.
The river Mabolo transects over five districts located in south earthen of Kogi including Okura Ubele, Ofu, Ankpa, and Otukpo watershed. This river is the major source of the main economic activities in district and most of these activities take place within the river itself and others take place within the catchments such activities include water abstraction, sewage treatment, cattle rearing, agriculture and agro-forestry and many other practices. These activities are all done without the notification of downstream user and as a result the river has deteriorated both in quantity and quality including drying up of wetland around, fringing the river (Mukwaya and Mugabe, 2010). Beside this factors the river Mabolo catchments experience
The total nutrient discharged into surface waters in a river basin is normally larger than the nutrient load at the river mouth (Wassman and olli, 2004); and such discrepancy is a explained by the process of nutrient retention which is a collectives expression for a large number of biochemical and hydrological process of a large temporarily decrease, decay, degrade, transform or permanently retard and removes the substance from the river channel. The significance of streams as nutrient recipients from terrestrial catchments to receiving water bodies is of environmental concern as it may lead to excessive nutrient loading and inability of the system to cope with the loading (Peterson, et, al, 2001).
Ankpa lakes and rivers like other water bodies face a threat of pollution due to increasing human population, urbanization, industrialization and agricultural modernization (Joensuu 1996). There are concerned efforts by government to reduce water pollution and there include the establishment of the Direct ovate of water development under ministry of water and environment which is the principle agency of government and the provision of water supplies in rural and urban centers. The mandate of National sewage corporation (NWSC) is to operate and provide water and sewage services in area entrusted to it by the water Act (1995) and the NWSC Act, cap 150, national Environment offices, National resources management personnel, among others government also formulated polices and regulation to guide national use of water resources in order to achieved sustainable water quality and quantity. Such policies and regulation include the water statute (1995) which provide the frame work for the use protection and management of water resources and water supply, the national water policy (1999) the water resources regulations, (1998) and the waste water discharge Regulations (1998) which prescribe the threshold and procedures for applications to construct any water works. However there are still many challenges including lack of human capacity, inadequate facilitation and inter-institutional co-ordination in order to handle the associated environmental problems.
The Mabolo River has its source right within Ankpa town at a place called Ogaji, climate in the local government. Like other urban rivers and streams its faces similar threats of population and understanding its water quality dynamics as an urban river is an important aspect. Nutrient uptake and transformation is a central ecosystem function of streams (Payne, et, al., 2005), and although many studies may have been done on the water quality of river Mabolo by various researchers, more needs to be known about its water quality of river Mabolo dynamics or variations in terms bacterial load and chemical contamination.
It is notice that the water resources in the river Mabolo have decline over 12 years. This can be attributed to increased degradation of the resources (this has been observed, but it is not measured) due to increase agricultural in the catchments, using poor land and soil management systems, in addition it is noticeable that there has been a declining trend of the catchments rainfall and such phenomena are believed to be the impact of climate change and global warming.
There has been growing concern about the need to protect the environment from the various form of population caused by growing human populations, used of modern agricultural methods etc. (Hunt and Wilson 1986). Micro organisms often play a major role in determining the extent of this pollution (Higgins and Burns 1975) and municipal waste water is a primary contributor of bacteria to the aquatic environment (Linton et al. 1974). The presence of faecal coli-form is considered as presumptive evidence of faecal pollution (Mara, 1978) pathogenic bacteria that have been transmitted by water or waste water include, vibriocholarae, salmonella, leptospira, campylobacter and Yesinia (APHA; 1992).
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM