INNOVATIVE STRATEGY OF TEACHING COMPUTER SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
The major purpose of this study was to determine the Innovative strategy of teaching computer science in secondary school in delta State. Four research questions were answered and four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the study consisted of 282 made up of 118 principals, 118 Vice Principals and 46 computer studies teachers in Oshimili and Aniocha Local Government Areas of Delta State. There was no sample for the study because the population size was manageable. Descriptive survey design was used to generate data for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information for the study. The instrument was face validated by three research experts, two from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and one from the Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba. The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 30 computer study teachers from secondary schools in Nsukka zone of Enugu State. Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of .77. Data were analysed using mean statistic for the research questions and ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the findings, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean rating of principals, vice principals and teachers on the strategies for improving the funding strategies required for the teaching of computer studies. It was concluded that there are some basic strategies that could be adopted in other to improve the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools in Oshimili and Aniocha Local Government Areas of Delta State. It was recommended that school administrators (principals, vice principals and teachers) should be sponsored on retraining programmes at least twice a year through workshop, seminars and conferences to enable them learn the modern technological skills in their chosen field of endeavour.
|Table of Contents||vi|
|List of Tables||viii|
|CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION||1|
|Background of the Study||1|
|Statement of the Problem||7|
|Purpose of the Study||8|
|Significance of the Study||8|
|Delimitation f the Study||11|
|CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE||12|
|ICT as aids to Teaching and Learning||20|
|ICT as a Tool for Educational Management||22|
|ICT as a Tool for Higher Technology Development||24|
|Problems of Computer Studies in Secondary Schools||25|
|Prospect of Computer Studies in Secondary Schools||30|
|Constructivism Learning Theory||38|
|Downes Siemens Connectivism Learning Theory||40|
|Houses Path-Goal Theory||41|
|Two Factor Theory||42|
|Related Empirical Studies||42|
|Summary of Literature Reviewed.||45|
|CHAPTER III: RESEAARCH METHODOLOGY||47|
|Design of the Study||47|
|Area of the Study||47|
|Population for the Study||47|
|Sample and Sampling Technique||48|
|Instrument for Data collection||48|
|Validation of the Instrument||49|
|Reliability of the Instrument||49|
|Method of Data Collection||49|
|Method of Data Analysis||50|
|CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA||51|
|Research Question 1||51|
|Research Question 2||52|
|Research Question 3||54|
|Research Question 4||55|
|Finding of the Study||59|
|Discussion of Findings||61|
|CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND|
|Re-statement of the Problem||67|
|Summary of Procedures Used||68|
|Summary of Findings||69|
|Implications of the Study||71|
|Suggestions for Further Studies||73|
|Appendix A: Population Distribution of Respondents||78|
|Appendix B: Letter to the Respondent||79|
|Appendix C: Questionnaire||80|
|Appendix D: Letter to Validates||85|
Background of the Study
One of the fundamental rights for every human being is education. Education prepares the individual for challenges in life. Consequently, Gujjar, Khan, Baig, Ramzan and Saifi (2010) opined that education does not only deliver information, but for developing complete personality of a child. In Nigeria there are three levels of education: primary, secondary and tertiary level. Secondary education is the level between primary and tertiary education. It equally prepares students to be productive members of the society (Jegede and Owolabi, 2003). In developed countries, secondary school is seen as the gateway to providing not only an educated citizenry but also a capable workforce. According to World Bank in Etim (2006), secondary education is now being recognized
as the cornerstone of educational system in the 21st century. It therefore means that quality secondary education is indispensable in creating a bright future for individuals and nations alike.
Inline with the above statements, Jacob and Tomoko (2001) stated that secondary education is crucial for economic growth. Jacob and Tomoko (2001) maintained that globalization, the increasing importance of ICT in the twenty-five century and rapid technological changes have made knowledge essential for competing in the world economy. Secondary education therefore provides countries with the skills and knowledge needed for economic growth, including furthering learning and training of professionals such as technicians scientists and entrepreneurs. Secondary education can also be decisive in fostering positive social and civic values and yields considerable private returns, offering young people the chance to acquire skills that were unlikely to be developed in the primary grades. This in turn enables youth to develop job-oriented skills, participate fully in society, take control of their own lives, and continue learning. Educational system is gradually becoming a system of technology especially in the present information driven economy. Owing to advances in science and technology which continues to revolutionize the global world, the Federal Ministry of Education introduced computer studies at all levels of education in Nigeria (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).
The term computer studies have been used interchangeably. In come cases it has been referred to as computer education while in other cases it is called computer literacy. In whatever way, it means the same thing. Computer education is the effort or the ability to make the generality of the people computer literate. They went further to state that computer education (literacy) means ability to tell the computer what you want it to do and understand what the computer says. Computer literacy as the ability to be able to read, write and speak the language of the computer. It can also be looked at as a process of educating the people on how to use a computer to run a program and diverse application including business, industry and commerce (Okorie, 2001). Computer studies according to Edhuze (2003) involve teaching and inculcating in the learner the basic skills required to independently manipulate the computer to achieve educational goals. He further stated that, computer studies as a subject is aimed at making students acquire skills and competencies required in this digital word of competitiveness. Such basic skills and competencies upon graduation make them conversant with term and practices embedded in the world of computer. Computer studies is therefore a subject organized to enable people understand the function, uses and limitations of the computer and to provide an opportunity for the study of the modern methods of information processing.
The intention of Nigeria to include computer studies into the secondary school curriculum dates back to 1988 when the National Policy on Computer Education was enacted and launched (Abimbade, 1999). The policy on computer education suggested the following as some of the computer curriculum context at the secondary school level: A basic appreciation of how the computer works, an understanding of the basic principle of operating the computer, hands-on experience using the pre-programmed packages which are relevant to the interest of the students as teacher aids in different subjects. According to the National Policy on Computer Education (1988), it is expected that by the end of secondary education, the child has acquired reasonable competence in software such as word processing, spreadsheet, database analyzing programs that allow learners interact with the computer the way they desire (Ayogu, 2008). It therefore means that to achieve these objectives as stated in the National Policy on Education, strategies are needed.
According to Zahra (1993), strategies offer a framework within which an organization defines possible means of achieving its goals and objectives. The objective of every strategy is to put the organization in a position to carryout its mission effectively and efficiently. Educational program facing difficulties needs to develop and implement strategies to improve its fortunes. Inline with this, the Federal Government adopted a strategy: The introduction of a scholarship award scheme known as Technical Teacher Training Program (TTTP). This scheme took off in the month of January, 1992. One of their aims is the training of serving science and technical teachers in computer studies throughout the country.
The experience in several countries that had introduced computer literacy program, shows that the most appropriate place to start computer awareness program is at the school level and the most appropriate level is the secondary school. Therefore the decision in 1988 by the Federal Government of Nigeria to start its pilot program in the Federal Government Colleges was keeping with what had proved successful in other countries and inline with the recommendations of the committee on National Policy for Computer Education in Nigeria. This committee was mandated amongst others, to advise government on the curricular contests and procedures best suitable to the needs of the country and for the various levels of education. This committee was also mandated to come up with consideration and advice on the ways and means of ensuring a smooth transition of computer courses between and among the various types and levels of education.
In carrying out its assignment, it was noted that the major objective of introducing computer literacy program at the secondary school level is to enable students acquire a level of knowledge about computers which would fit them directly into the employment market or enable these students to pursue courses in computer science at higher levels. One of the major merits of the National Policy on Computer Education, therefore, is that it recommended the introduction of computer studies at all secondary schools in Nigeria. As a matter of fact, the committee recommended a total lifting of restriction on computer studies in a way that computer literacy program can begin right from primary school. According to the committee, computer studies should be introduced at any level provided the necessary facilities and resources are adequately provided for effective implementation.
Since then, effort has been made to include computer studies in the primary and secondary school. According to Batubo, Digitemie and Nelly (2008), no educational program for primary and secondary school over the world that is devoid of computer studies, is complete. With the introduction of computer studies, in Nigerian secondary school, its implementation has been faced with so many difficulties ranging from resources (computer experts, computers and computer systems) to equipment necessary for teaching computer studies. With the launching of the National Policy on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in 2001, the Federal Government began a spirited campaign to make computers available to different strata of the society, beginning from the federal and state owned schools.
Obioma (2009) however declared that the greatest challenge facing the improvement of the new program was to train pre-service teachers or to re-tool the skills of adequate number of serving teachers. Improvement according to Robbinson (2000) is the development of circumstances in which something is lacking to better standard or quality. Inline with this, there is need for qualified computer teachers since according to Kersh in Bada (2009), the classroom teacher will never be replaced by programme of self-instruction. Rather, he will be free to guide the learning of his students in ways that only a human being can. They went further to assert that in using computer for instruction, the teacher’s role is hypothesized as changed basically from that of informer to learning facilitator. His duty of delivering lectures changes to that of guide and problem solver. On the other hand, there is need for computer literate teachers.
According to Sloan in Edhuze (2003), the need for computer literate teachers can lead to improved students performance in thinking logically, formulating problem, solving procedures and understanding relationships (Sloan, 1995). With computer literate teachers, the supervision of computer studies is possible as pointed out by Hall in Edhuze (2003) when he stated that when supervised, virtually all homework, can be done on computer, essay can be written since computer take the drudgery out of doing calculation or writing and tackling of more complex mathematical problems. It also enables children to concentrate on the task ahead. It therefore implies that every one stands to gain from the inclusion of computer studies in secondary schools. Schwedt in Edhuze (2003), however noted that in a well equipped computer classroom and with properly trained computer literate teachers, both difficult and impossible task could be accomplished. Such task like allowing for shared screen work, local network servers, which facilitate paperless transfer of file on-line (access to the internet can turn each seat into a binary) and on-line conferencing can stimulate active writing participation by every student. With this advantage, teachers are the most important force in the improvement of the program and their efforts at providing quality education for students and raising students’ achievement cannot be underestimated. It therefore means that the single most important determinant of what students learn is what their teachers know: teacher qualifications, teacher knowledge and skills, make more difference in students learning than any other single factor. Hence improving students learning includes investing in teachers learning. There is also need for the principals and vice principals to provide an enabling environment and resources to ensure a successful improvement of computer studies.
Statement of the Problem
The growing need for computer literacy has made it imperative that increased attention be given to the study of computer at all level of education especially in secondary schools. It has been observed that schools in Oshimili and Aniocha Local Government Area of Delta State has shown that inadequate laboratory, computer and instructional materials required for teaching and learning of computer studies are not only inadequate but have not been fully utilized. Further interaction with student has shown that they are not taught computer studies regularly like any other subject due to shortage of computer teachers. However, the principal noted that one of the reasons why computer teachers are in short supply is that when NCE teachers with computer qualification when employed, they prefer to teach mathematics subject rather than computer subject. The principals however noted that most of these computer teachers have been exposed only to the theoretical aspect of their programme while little or no attention was paid to the practical aspect of their programme during their years of training.
It therefore means that without proper improvement on the gaps facing computer studies in secondary schools in Aniocha and Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State, secondary school students upon graduation are bound to be completely obsolete in our contemporary society where knowledge of computer has become a prerequisite for employment, interview and in some cases for promotion. It is on this basis that the researcher deems it necessary to conduct a study on strategies for improving computer studies in Aniocha and Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study is to determine Innovative strategy of teaching computer science in secondary school in Aniocha and Oshimili, Local Government Area of Delta State. The study specifically sought to determine:
1. the funding innovative strategies for improving the teaching of computer studies in secondary school in Aniocha and Oshimili, Local Government Area of Delta State.
2. the innovative strategies for improving the availability and quality of instructional facilities required for the teaching of computer studies in secondary school in Aniocha and Oshimili, Local Government Area of Delta State.
3. the strategies for improving teaching methodology required for the teaching of computer studies in secondary school in Aniocha and Oshimili, Local Government Area of Delta State.
4. the strategies for improving the availability and quality of human resources required for the teaching of computer studies in Aniocha and Oshimili, Local Government Area of Delta State.
Significance of the Study
This study will be useful to policy makers. Being aware of the changing and challenging world of digitalization they will be able to produce curriculum that will stand the test of time. The findings of this study will help them follow suit and form a body that will regulate, monitor, evaluate and verify progress on the use of the existing curriculum, since current curriculum is obsolete and needs to be updated within the dynamic world of computers.
The result of this finding will serve as a guide when allocating funds for the purchase of basic instructional facilities that will be used by teachers for teaching of computer studies. It will also serve as a guide when providing funds for retraining serving teachers in IT techniques and instructional methods. This training should also be made open also to private schools to ensure uniform standards.
The findings of this study will not only alert but serve as a source of data to the current trends, also add to the volume of literature available in schools and as a reference for future research for improving the teaching of computer studies in secondary school to the federal government. It is hoped that the recommendations of this study will be of help to designated College of Education and Universities so that they will see the current problems in terms of shortage of computer teachers and teach both theoretical and practical courses or programs with the view that within few years, qualified computer teachers will be available to schools.
1. What are the funding innovative strategies required for the teaching of Computer studies in secondary schools in Aniocha and Oshimili, Local Government Area of Delta State?
2. What are the strategies for improving the availability and quality of instructional facilities required for the teaching of Computer studies in secondary schools in Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas of Delta State?
3. What are the innovative strategies for improving teaching methodologies required for the teaching of Computer studies in secondary schools in Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas of Delta State?
4. What are the strategies for improving the supply and quality of human resources required for the teaching Computer studies in Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas of Delta State?
Four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H01: There is no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean response of principal,
vice-principal and teachers on the strategies for improving the funding strategies required for the teaching of Computer studies in secondary school in Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas of Delta State.
H02: There is no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean responses of principal,
vice-principal and teachers on the strategies for improving the availability and quality of instructional facilities required for the teaching of Computer studies in secondary schools in Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas of Delta State.
H03: There is no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean responses of principal,
vice-principal and teachers on the strategies for improving teaching methodologies required for the teaching of Computer studies in secondary schools in Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas of Delta State.
H04: There is no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean responses of principal,
vice-Principal and teachers on the strategies for improving the availability and quality of human resources required for teaching of Computer studies in secondary schools in Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas of Delta State.
Delimitation of the Study
It is delimited to principals, vice-principals and teachers in secondary schools where Computer studies are offered as a subject in Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas, in Delta State.