Viewers Perception Of Startimes Satellite Tv Programming Contents On Consumers Income (A Study Of NTA Television College)
This study investigated Viewers Perception Of Startimes Satelite Tv Programming Contents On Consumers Income (A Study Of Nta Television College. The objectives that guided this study included: To establish the level of awareness of viewers of Startimes Satelite Tv Programming, to examine the nature and the impact of information consumed by viewers among NTA college students and to establish motivational factors for watching Startimes Satellite TV program among NTA Television College . The study utilized the uses and gratifications and the social learning theory in examining the startimes sataelite d TV programmes. The study adopted a case study design with questionnaire and interviews being used as instruments of data collection. The researcher analyzed both primary and secondary data that provided information for the study. The study used a sample of 220 and response rate was good at 84%. The findings indicated that startimes programmes impact positively on viewers by transferring positive messages to them like good parentage, drug abstinence and responsible youth behavior among others. With reference to the findings of this study, it is recommended that there should be an increase in Startimes satellite generated programmes since majority of the viewer‟s upheld the positive themes that they deduced from the programmes and thus parents and guardians should encourage their children to watch the programmes.
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This chapter introduces the reader to the topic being studied, the statement of the problem, the general objectives that guided the study, hypothesis, significance of the study the scope and the justification of the study.
Background of the Study
Media has been part of the people and the world. As a significant part of most people‟s lives, media had undergone extreme transitions making it a progressive industry. For example in Nigeria, since 1998 a remarkable change in TV Broadcasting has occurred, but it has not affected the majority of the population as television sets still remain the preserve of urban middle-class dwellers. In developed countries such as the United States and Japan, the media industry has greatly progressed as well. In most parts of the world, television is considered as the most popular and ubiquitous public medium, offering diverse and accessible entertainment that remains unmatched by print media (Abu-Lughod, 1993). Mass media, and television in particular, are forces which provide audiences with ways of seeing and interpreting the world – ways which ultimately shape their very existence and participation within society.
Many viewers choose to ignore or actively oppose television‟s representations of the world (Brookfield, 1987). As a result, various researchers have conducted numerous reception studies so as to discuss the decoding process applicable to TV viewing (Van Reeth, 2011; Mittell, 2009)
had initially mentioned the process involved in the encoding and decoding theory in television discourse. In this interpretation, three positions were pointed out in interpreting audience message. These are dominant-hegemonic position, negotiated code or position and oppositional code. In fact, the three positions can be seen as a process of audience constructing. Each can be associated with life experience and the sense of reading by the audience themselves. An audience with a high level of education may be inclined to the situation of oppositional code. Dominant values are broadly accepted but are interpreted within the viewer‟s idiosyncratic context (Brookfield, 1987). In addition to analyzing the audience, television viewing is also analyzed based on conceptualism. This served as a useful analytic tool in understanding how audiences perceive television as a medium (Barker, 2000).
The liberalization of airwaves in Nigeria in the 1990s by the Communication Commission of Nigeria (now Communications Authority) has led to the emerging of many television stations that are competing for viewership. Consequently, the viewers are exposed to different stations ranging from free-to-air stations to Pay TV stations (such as Startimes, GoTV, DSTV) depending on viewer‟s choice in addition to alternative sources of information and entertainment such as the internet. This expansion of television networks has made competition for audiences increasingly fierce as television channels are seeking to consolidate the limited number of viewers available in the market. In this intense competition, it is important that television channels create a unique image of themselves that will help them stand out and be different from their competitors in order to make viewers easily identify them. This has necessitated the need for creation of a brand that is attractive and appealing to the viewers through branding.
Why People Watch Television
The advent of so many new media technologies has powered the worldwide explosion of media usage among youths in the last decade. Today, so many technologies are competing for their attention and the only way to get it is to provide them with something very relevant to their lives. Broadcasters acknowledge the fact that people “split their enormous media time among many activities – social networking, viewing video, exchanging Instant Messages, viewing graphics and photos, listening to music, watching TV, playing games, looking up things, even catching up on the news – often simultaneously, (Vahlberg, 2010). Hence, broadcasters tailor their programmes for so many platforms – TV, the internet, mobile devices, and desktop computers.
Without a doubt, television plays a significant role in the socialization process of today‟s child. Most children are exposed to watching television long before they are able to read. According to the UNESCO, when a child begins to watch television at an early age, they usually begin with children programmes – revolving around puppets, animals, story-telling, and children‟s songs (Carlsson & Von feilitzen, 1988). With time however, they discover adult programmes, and develop a liking for them. More importantly, they prefer the more local programmes often originating from within the society. However, when choices are available at the same time, children tend to choose the type of programme which they have previously found interesting, and thus their tastes are hardened and narrowed.
Statement of the Problem
A number of studies have been done on the media and effects that competition has on different segment of media. For example, competitive intelligence practices by FM stations in Nigeria, Sang (2001), there was a survey on advertising agencies in Nigeria (Mbuthia,2003), competitive strategies adopted by NTA (Karoney, 2008), competitive strategies adopted by mainstream daily print media firms in Nigeria (Mbugua, 2006) .However, no study has been done on viewers perception of startimes tv programing contents on consumers income. Yet this is a very important aspect in the broadcast industry due to the entry of many competitors.
This study seeks to fill the gap in the study of television broadcast by looking at the impact of Startimes Satellite programs on Nigerian television viewers with a special attention to startimes satellite tv.
General objective of the study
The main objective of this study was to explore viewers perception of Startimes satellite tv programming contents on consumers income
The study was based on the following specific objectives:
- To establish the level of awareness of viewers of Startimes Satellite Tv Programming in NTA college students.
- To examine the nature and the impact of information consumed audience among NTA college students.
- To establish motivational factors for watching Startimes Satellite TV program among NTA college students.
The following research questions guided the study:
- What is the level of awareness of viewers on Startimes Satellite Tv Programming?
- What are the nature and the impact of information consumed by the audience among NTA college students?
- What are the motivational factors for watching Startimes Satellite TV program among NTA college students?
Hypotheses of the study
According to Adaramola (2001), hypotheses are statements of arguable assertions formulated about the characteristics of a defined population which may be accepted or rejected after critical investigation and tests. Every research work must be hinged on two forms of hypotheses namely: null hypotheses (H0) and alternative hypotheses (H1).
The testable hypotheses for this study are:
- H0: Startimes Satellite TV programmes have insignificant impact on Nigerian television viewers.
H1: Startimes Satellite TV programmes have significant impact of Nigerian television viewers.
- H0: Information consumed by audience will most likely increase Nigerian viewer‟s preferences of their
H1: There is significant relationship between motivational factors and viewer‟s intent of watching Startimes Satellite TV program.
Significance of the Study
This study seeks to contribute to the development of knowledge and literature on Startimes Satellite programmes.
, the findings in this study will be of help in assessing how their programmes affect viewers.
Scope of the study
The study focused on NTA college students in examining startimes stallite TV programmes. The study targeted the staff and audiences of Startimes Satellite TV. Considering there are several Startimes Satellite programmes,. The target population was NTA college students who own television sets.